Kindella Yunia

The Great Maritime Empire of Srivijaya which in the 6th to 12th centuries controlled the world trade routes at that time. This trade route is also a medium for cultural and religious exchange. Sriwijaya was also a center for the education and spread of Buddhism in Southeast Asia which was very advanced. Buddhism is an eastern psychology which is full of philosophical, psychological and ethical materials that are very well formulated and systematic. Buddhist psychology, too, has been integrated with modern western psychology. A variety of renowned teachers, clinicians and writers in the west such as Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Alan Watts, Tara Brach, Jack Kornfield, Joseph Goldstein, and Sharon Salzberg among others have attempted to bridge and integrate psychology and Buddhism. Assessment of Buddhism in term of modern western psychology started when the British indologist Caroline Rhys Davids translated Abhidhamma Pitaka from Pali and Sanskrit texts into English in 1900. She published the book entitled it, “Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics”. This book is a translation of the Dhammasaṅgaṇī, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Abhidhamma Pitaka is the third part of the Tipitaka as the holy book of Buddhism. The Abhidhamma contains a very systematic psychological explanation of human behavior and mind. In the Dhammasaṅgaṇī it is reported that the human being is composed of the mind, mental factors and body. To summarize, there are 121 kinds of Consciousness, 52 kinds of mental concomitans and 28 kinds of matter. All of which are grouped into 3 kinds of phenomena, namely wholesome, unwholesome and neutral phenomena. Abhidhamma Pitaka articulates simultaneously a philosophy, a psychology, and an ethics, all integrated into the framework of a program for liberation.